Cytokines are a general term for proteins that transmit certain information to cells. They have a relatively small structure (most have a molecular weight of less than 30,000), and there are many different types of cytokines.
Unlike hormones, which are produced in specific organs and affect relatively distant cells, cytokines usually transmit information to cells near the secreting cells or to the secreting cells themselves.
Cytokine is a word coined from cyto, meaning “cell,” and kinein, a Greek word meaning “movement”. Since the discovery of interferon, a type of cytokine, in 1954, several hundred types of cytokines have been discovered up to now.
Among cytokines, those that specifically function to promote cell proliferation and differentiation are sometimes referred to as “growth factors” (also called proliferative factors), however cytokines have a wide variety of functions, and the definition of cell growth factor is ambiguous.
How it Transmits Information: Receptors
The first place cytokines start transmitting information to cells is the receptor, a structure on the surface of the cell.
When a cytokine reaches a target cell from outside the cell, it first binds to the receptor. This triggers the binding of various enzymes and the exchange of electrons, such as phosphorylation, in a chain reaction that proceeds through the cell like dominoes. This reaction is called intracellular signal transduction.
This reaction which happens between cytokines and receptors is eventually transmitted to the cell nucleus and the chromosomes within the nucleus, which is a collection of genetic information that is the command center of the cell.
In other words, cytokine signaling has a great influence to change the cell itself.
The structures of cytokines and receptors are identical in the same animal species, so there are no individual differences. However, because the structure of proteins differs between animals and plants, and among different animals, the effects of cytokines do not work or are reduced in most cases.
Functions of Cytokines
Even the same cytokine can have completely different effects depending on the type of target cell (the cell that receives the cytokine with its receptor). The fact that a single cytokine can have possess different effects is called “”multifunctionality of cytokines.
Cytokines are signal transmitting substances between cells, but cytokines themselves can regulate other cytokines or control cells that produce cytokines, causing more and more chain reactions. The cells that participate in the cytokine exchange change dynamically, and the types and amount of cytokines also change moment by moment, forming a complex network. This complex and elaborate harmony is what controls the unique reactions in the body.
Cytokines secreted by adipose-derived stem cells
Cytokines are not substances only produced and secreted by stem cells. Normal mature cells also balance each other out by transmitting information through various cytokines.
However, adipose-derived stem cells are a type of “”mesenchymal stem cell”” that is known to secrete an abundance of stem cells. Among the many types of stem cells, their ability to influence the harmony of surrounding cells is unsurpassed. The ability of adipose-derived stem cells to produce cytokines is expected to be applied to the treatment of myocardial infarction, liver cirrhosis, and various other diseases that are presumed to be caused by immunopathy.
A number of cytokines produced by adipose-derived stem cells that affect the skin and subcutaneous tissues are also known.”
- EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor)
- FGF (Fibroblast Growth Factor)
- VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor)
- HGF (Hepatocyte Growth Factor)
- IGF (Insulin-like Growth Factor)
- TGF-β (Transforming Growth Factor)
Due to the multifunctionality and network of cytokines mentioned above, these cytokines exert complex effects on the organism that cannot be explained by simple addition of effects acting alone.
However, for the purpose of skin improvement, the efficacy of the rejuvenating effects of adipose-derived stem cell infusion therapy has been proven in the field of cosmetic treatment. Adipose-derived stem cells, which have been scientifically proven to improve anti-aging and skin quality, are thought to have an exquisite cytokine network in the body.
Grancell’s Commitment to Stem Cell Cosmetics
As mentioned above, cytokines have a complex control system of multifunctionality and networking.
That is why Grancell develops stem cell cosmetics that originate from adipose-derived stem cells, which have proven to be immensely effective in cosmetic treatments.
We believe that the ratio of cytokines that maintain a perfect balance in the delicate skin can only be reproduced from actual cells.
This is similar to making a good wine.
Good wine is made with good grapes. That is why we maintain the quality of our adipose-derived stem cells to the highest standards.
Good grapes are made by good soil and sun. That’s why we cultivate stem cells in a strictly controlled CPC using our proprietary culture methods cultivated through our therapeutic work.
Grancell is based on regenerative medicine research at the University of the Ryukyus Faculty of Medicine, and experts in regenerative medicine, aesthetic medicine, and stem cell culture are in charge of development, manufacturing, and quality control. This is the highest level of Academia Cosmetics that go beyond the realm of doctor’s cosmetics.
We believe that it is our responsibility to maintain the high quality of our products, which are safe, secure, and trusted by society, because they are academia cosmetics made with university technology.